A. OFITG stands for
“One Foot in the Grave.” This is not because I am a fan of the
British television series, but because of an injury that left me an
amputee. I find the reference to be appropriate, given my interests
in history and the fact that I literally have a foot that transcended
the plains of our existence.
Q. We have seen your
miniature painting and hobby stuff. But when in the history coming?
A. To paraphrase the
caricature of a popular fantasy author, “It’s coming.”
“Gustav Adolf’s best cavalry were his Swedish nationals… Most feared of all were Stålhandske’s light-armed Finns, the “Hakcapells”(named after their war-cry Hakkaa päälle – Hack ‘em down!) who took no prisoners. The German cavalry were a very mixed bunch, ranging from regiments like Courvill’s and Ohm’s which had fought in the Polish campaign, to hastily recruited units that had yet to be issued standards. On the whole they were distinctly inferior … it was for this reason that Gustav Adolf strengthened them by ‘interlining’ bodies of musketeers between the squadrons.” (1)
Although King Charles X Gustav’s invasion of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was more than two decades after Gustav Adolf’s bloody battle at Lützen, the nature of Sweden’s mounted arm had not drastically changed in the intervening years. From the hard-hitting Finnish veterans to German mercenaries who were recent recruits to the Swedish flag, Charles X Gustav depended on his cavalry for offensive action and charges. In the insurgent war that followed the Swedish occupation of much of the country, in which infantry had a hard time covering the times and spaces needed to confront the cavalry-heavy Poles, Charles X became increasingly reliant on his cavalry arm. It is noteworthy that at the war’s largest battle, Warsaw in 1656, more than two-thirds of the Swedish-Brandenburger army under Charles X’s command were cavalry. Despite their inferiority to their Polish and Imperial counterparts, Swedish cavalry by the time of the Deluge included veteran troops and disciplined commanders who usually acquitted themselves well on the battlefield.
It is only natural that my next painting project will focus on these grizzled units of the Swedish cavalry arm, 15mm veteran reiters for my By Fire and Sword collection (links here for the main store and here for the US store). I’ve done things slightly differently with my painting method, and as a result I am very pleased with the results. I used Vallejo Glaze Medium with my paints and altered my method accordingly. This is for three purposes. I’m not actually using a glazing technique, per se, but I am using the properties of the glaze medium to achieve a kind of wet blend. The glaze medium acts a both a thinner and a retardant, and delays the drying time for the paint. This allows me to mix in highlight colors on raised areas and provides a smoother and less harsh contrast. The glaze medium also provides an excellent texture when dried. I got this idea from watching Miniac’s video on wet blending here. This was my first time using this technique or attempting to ape wet-blending in general. While my results might not be the best example of wet-blending, I like the final finish and I’ve decided to adopt this method going forward.
So in essence: 1. Lay a base color mixed with glaze medium. You want to make sure the pigment is thin but not too thin. If the paint is too runny like a wash or ink, add more of the color to the mix. Clean the brush immediately with clean water (have a cup at your paint station, even if you use a wet palette) and wipe your brush on a paper towel. Then immediately use a mix of a highlight color, base color, and glaze medium blend. Paint this on the raised areas or areas exposed to light, leaving recessed unpainted. Clean the brush. Line (a method opposite of highlighting where you paint darker colors into the recesses) the recessed area with the base color/glaze mix. Clean the brush. Finally, hit the highlight color (or highlight mixed) combined with the medium. on the highest raised areas or the areas that would be most exposed to light. Clean the brush. Further line and apply highlights as necessary.
faces as an example (following the adage of “Good Faces, Bases, and
Base coat of Mourfang Brown and glaze mix.
2. Clean brush applied a 40/60 Brown/Flat Flesh and glaze mix on the cheeks, forehead and nose.
3. Clean brush. Lined the eyes and the bottom creases of the cheeks with Mourfang Brown/glaze mix.
4. Clean brush. Apply a Flat Flesh and glaze mix on the top of the cheeks, nose, and the center of the forehead.
From start to finish, painting this face took about six minutes. This is not as fast as a straight base coat and contrasted highlighted (about three minutes in my case) or using something like a dip or stain (barring the drying times for those methods), but the result is much more nuanced and textured in a manner that it is worth the extra steps and the slight increase in time spent in my opinion.
to paint comparison charts if you need to use a substitute.
What I used:
Vallejo Glaze Medium
As a thinner and retardant to assist with blending, highlighting,
lining, and to result in an excellent texture when dry
Vallejo Gloss Varnish
First layer of varnish on the miniature. For maximum protection.
Vallejo Matt Varnish
Second and final layer of varnish applied to the miniatures twelve
hours after the first.
Citadel Chaos Black Spray
Citadel Mourfang Brown
Face & fleshtone base color. Also used to base the bay color horses.
Vallejo Model Color Flat Flesh
Face & fleshtone highlight color, used to mix highlight with
browns for some bay colored horses, though to a lesser extent than
Vallejo Model Color White
Highlight color for cravats and small clothes, and to highlight
the base colors for the wool coats, boots, scabbards, and hats.
Citadel Wazdakka Red
Base color for red
Vallejo Model Color Hull Red
Used to base coat wood on pistols
Vallejo Model Color Mahogany Brown
Highlight color on the pistols. Mixed with yellow in 50/50 to highlight leather. Mixed with black to highlight the chestnut colored horse.
Citadel Rhinox Hide
Used to base coat leather
Vallejo Model Color Dark Prussian Blue
Base color for the blue wool coat
Vallejo Model Color Military Green
Base color for the green wool coat
Privateer Press P3 Greatcoat Grey
Base color for the gray wool coat
Vallejo Model Color Chocolate Brown
Base color for two hats
Privater Press P3 Ironhull Grey
Base color for the gray hat and for the cravats and white colors
Vallejo Model Color Oily Steel
Used to paint the pistol barrels and gunmetal
Vallejo Model Color Black
Base color for boots and scabbards. Also base for the chestnut colored horse.
Vallejo Model Color Brass
Base color for sword hilts
Vallejo Model Color White Primer
Priming the base for the unit
Vallejo Model Color Flat Earth
Base color for the base. Mixed with matt varnish to ensure protection for the base while handling. Drybrush highlight on the base.
Citadel Stirland Mud
Texture paint for the base
from start to finish:
the miniatures in a water/dish washing liquid mix and a toothbrush to
clear away casting dust and to leave a clean surface for the primer.
Cut away mold lines with an X-Acto
the riders to their horses.
PVA glue to temporarily attach the old rulers and
color and highlights for the riders. Moved them to an old bottle to
use as a paint handle. Painted the riders first, then the horses.
to the rulers with PVA glue to varnish. I used paint-on varnish
because my area is too hot and humid this time of year to reliably
use a spray varnish. Double varnished, with an initial layer of gloss
varnish and followed twelve hours later with a matt varnish to kill
the glossy effect of the first varnish. Shook the varnish well and
slightly thinned with water.
Super-glued the figures on to the pre-primed base. Applied the base coat/matt varnish mix. After waiting for that to dry, I applied the texture paint carefully to the base, carefully avoiding the attached miniatures with the texture paint. I cleaned up the edge of the base where texture paint wound up on it.
After waiting for the texture base to dry, I applied a drybrush highlight and then static grass and bushes. Voila!
Richard Brzezinski, Lutzen 1632: Climax of the Thirty Years War (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001), 21.
Author’s note: While this guide was written for the miniatures made by Wargamer for their proprietary game By Fire and Sword, this guide can ostensibly used for any 15mm miniature or ruleset that takes place in the seventeenth century that features buff coats. For larger scale miniatures, additional intermediate highlight colors between the base coat and the final highlight may be required.
Buff coats are one of the most common armor types seen in western unit types in By Fire and Sword. Reiters, cuirassiers, some infantry (mainly pikemen), and certain officers would have worn buff coats. These are modeled and represented on the miniatures of the game as men with long, thigh-length coats. These can be painted as either buff coats or as regular wool coats, depending on the look you are attempting to achieve for your soldiers. As armies of the period trended away from the heavier full plate armor cuirasses, buff coats became a popular and cheaper alternative, especially with cavalry units. The buff coat was a compromise between the heavy, expensive immobility of a full plated cuirass and the more affordable but significantly more vulnerable wool coat. Buff coats could be seen from units ranging from the Eighty Years War to the English Civil War to the War of Spanish Succession.
If you play By Fire and Sword and have a faction that uses reiters or similar armor types, you will probably find yourself painting buff coats at some point. Buff coats, being made from a tanned animal hide (ranging from ox to elk hide), are usually a brownish-yellowish color.
What you will need:
A unit with a buff coat. Featured in this guide are pikemen from Wargamer’s Imperial infantry set. I’m using a set I initially painted when I new to the hobby, but want to repaint to bring them into line with my recent standard of painting. These are meant to represent infantry from the late Thirty Years’ War period of the 1640s. At this time, plate armor had fallen out of favor with the Imperial pikemen. Even buff coats themselves were becoming less popular in favor of ordinary woolen coats (1).
A black/dark/cold colored spray primer. I used Citadel’s Chaos Black spray, but you may use any black or dark gray spray primer. You may use a painted-on primer if you wish, but a spray primer will save you time.
Paints (duh!). You may choose the paints of whatever paint maker or provider you like, as long as your colors roughly match (To avoid confusion, use https://www.dakkadakka.com/wiki/en/Paint_Range_Compatibility_Chart or a similar paint chart). The paints I typically used were Citadel Steel Legion Drab, Citadel Tallarn Sand, and Vallejo Model Color White.
To paint a buff
coat, you have three steps: 1. Priming 2. Base Coat. 3. Highlight
For these figures, the left and right figures will have sleeveless buff coats, while the center figure will wear a plain red wool coat. To paint a full coat, you simply have to include the sleeves in your painting process. To paint a sleeveless buff coat, you only paint the torso, blouse, skirt, and tails of the coat, leaving the arms to be whichever color you desire. Additionally, the figure on the right in the top photograph has a small metal breastplate, which has been burnished in black. While plate armor was falling out of favor with Imperial pikemen, it perhaps would not have been uncommon to see a breastplate or two, especially if a soldier was to be in the front rank.
After having cleaned and primed your miniature, you will need to provide a base coat. For the base coat, I will use Steel Legion Drab. Be sure to thin your paint appropriately (or use a wet palette as I do) to avoid clogging details with excess paint. Once your base coat is down, your next step is the highlight. For 15mm scale, you only have room and detail for one bright highlight typically, as the smaller size of the miniature will mean that the nuance of a two-step highlight is lost. To ensure maximum contrast and attention to detail, you need to make sure your highlight is well chosen and painted. The highlight is best painted on raised areas, such as the ridges of folds in the clothes and the tops of creases. To ensure maximum detail, the highlight should cover the raised areas, but the base coat should still be visible in recessed areas.
To provide a maximum variation between the base coat and the highlight, I use a mix of two parts Tallarn Sand and one part Vallejo Model Color White. While Tallarn Sand by itself can be considered a highlight color for Steel Legion Drab, I find the white provides the extra brightness necessary to stand out from the base coat. If you don’t want to mix colors, you can still use a different yellow color for a highlight, such as Vallejo Model Color Iraqi Sand or Vallejo Model Color Desert Yellow. You could also alternate between using Tallarn Sand/White mix and one of the other desert colors on various models to provide a heterogeneous mix of yellow-brown colored hues, and to avoid an overly uniform shade for your buff wearing troopers.
Iron Armor Plate
For the pikemen on the left above, I achieved an iron plate even though the sculpt does not originally feature one by simply painting over the torso where a plate would be with plan Vallejo Model Color Black. This plate covers the front and black. Once I achieved the basic outline of what the plate was, I highlighted it with a mix of 1/3rd White to black. This represents that most armor was simply burnished black to avoid rusting in the field.
Brnardic, Imperial Armies of the Thirty Years’ War (1):
Infantry and Artillery (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2009), 33.
In my last post, I detailed how I was painting musketeers from the Mansfield Regiment (circa Vienna Campaign of 1683) for my Imperial army for By Fire and Sword. I’ve now completed a whole battalion, with four companies. Here they are in a standard post-Thirty Years’ War pike-and-shot formation, with pikemen in the center and squadrons of musketeers on the flanks. They are supported here by a regimental 3lb cannon. These are representative of Imperial-Habsburg infantry units who would fight in the War of the Holy League against both the Ottomans until the 1690s as well as Louis XIV of France and his wars of expansion. By the end of these conflicts, there would be drastic changes in the infantry’s equipment and appearance. The pikes would disappear, obsoleted by the socket bayonet. Infantry would adopt tricorns to replace the slouch hat and the flintlock fusil would see widespread adoption over the less reliable matchlock musket.
I simplified my painting process somewhat. I still prime in black, but I just use a base color and then a single but highly contrasted highlight on raised surfaces and edges. This saves the times from painting third highlights (which are not really perceptible in 15mm scale) or waiting for washes to dry without sacrificing visual quality or fidelity.
worth noting that for the actual period that By Fire and Sword
(1648-1672) is set in, the Imperial infantry would have worn red
uniforms as noted by a description by French diplomat Frischmann
there were about 5,000 infantrymen, all dressed
in red cloth.”
Frieschmann was describing the forces of the anti-Swedish coalition
in Denmark during the Second Northern War. A fuller version of his
quote, including a description of Polish and Brandenburg units in
addition to Imperial units, can be seen here.
It is presumed that the Imperial army would have worn red uniforms in
the 1663 war against the Turks. Additionally, there are artistic
depictions of Imperial infantry in red as late as the 1676 Siege
However, given that the Vienna Campaign took place only a little more than two decades after the Second Northern War, and that the pearl-gray/off-white color is strongly associated with the Habsburg army uniform (there are examples of Imperial regiments under Field Marshal Gallas adopting the color in 1645, partly as a cost saving measure as the color was essentially undyed wool), I chose pearl-gray as the uniform color for this time (1). I do have plans for an entire Imperial regiment in period appropriate red, however.
Up next on the painting list are some Swedish cavalry units that will serve for both the Thirty Years’ War and Second Northern War, followed by Imperial Croats.
1. Geoffrey Parker,
ed., The Thirty Years’ War, 2nd
ed., (London and New York: Routledge, 1997), 171-2; Vladimir
Brnardic, Imperial Armies of the Thirty Years’ War (1):
Infantry and Artillery (Oxford:
Osprey Publishing, 2009), 37-8.
“Here we think of nothing except military affairs. Last Monday the Dieppental battalion, 500 strong, was inspected by the imperial commissaries. Nine hundred horses and 169 wagons for the artillery, and 19 large anchors for warships, also arrived; while the same day, the foot marched out along the Tabor road to the suburbs, and went down the Danube next morning. On Tuesday 3 craft from Steyr came in, with 2,000 cannon-ball, and many thousands of smaller shot. Half of the Scherffenberg regiment (with 1,020 men) also arrived, and marched through the city … Today, half the Mansfeld regiment (again 1,020 men) were stationed outside the Burg-gate at 9 0’clock, when the Emperor went out of town to hunt; he took the opportunity to inspect them. They were well clad in grey, with blue facings …” – Observer in Vienna, April 22, 1683, quoted in John Stoyer, The Siege of Vienna: The Last Trial of Cross and Crescent (New York: Pegasus Books, 2006), 63.
I’ve recently been expanding my collection of Imperial units for the game By Fire and Sword. I’ve been working on completing at least two regiments of Holy Roman Empire infantry. The first will be painted as Imperial infantry for the Vienna campaign of 1683, while the second would be for Imperial infantry for the 1657-60 Northern War in red uniforms.
Given it is the more famous engagement, I decided to start with the troops from the later Vienna campaign. Using the first hand account of the uniform of the Mansfeld Regiment quoted in Stoyer’s book, I decided to use the Mansfeld regiment as an example unit.
I started by cleaning and preparing the miniatures. I then glued them with PVA glue to a couple of cheap old rulers to provide a base to hold while I painted. I then primed the miniatures with Games Workshop Chaos Black Primer spray. For the uniform coats, I base coated with Vallejo Model Color Basalt Grey. To add definition, I then went over with a coat of Games Workshop Nuln Oil shade. Then I highlighted with either Vallejo Model Color Sky Grey or Vallejo Game Color Ghost Grey. This gives a variety in color which reflects that uniform dyes weren’t quite so precise and that the coats would appear different shades due to natural wear and appearance. The cuffs and other visible facings were then painted with Vallejo Model Color Prussian Blue, shaded with Nuln Oil, and then highlighted with a Prussian Blue/White mix. Next painted were faces, hats, trousers and stockings, and shoes. This were of various colors, but I’ll give an example of each below.
Faces: Vallejo Game Color Beasty Brown Base, with a Beasty Brown/IWM Paints 77-705 Flesh mix as a first highlight, leaving only the lowest recesses not covered. To give definition, Games Workshop Reikland Fleshshade was shaded over the base layers. Then a final cheek/forehead highlight of pure IWM Flesh was used, sometimes mixed with white on the nose bridge and forehead.
Hats: I varied between gray, black, and brown hats of various shades to reflect that these would often be a multitude of colors. For a basic example, I mixed Basalt Grey with Vallejo Model Color Chocolate Brown to give a brown-gray tint as a base coat. I washed with Games Workshop Agrax Earthshade for definition, and then highlighted with a White/base color mix. Sometimes, I edge highlighted with a extreme white/base color mix to give a “pop” to the hat rims.
Trousers: For red trousers, I started with a Vallejo Model Color Red base coat, shaded with Games Workshop Carroburg Crimson shade. I then highlighted with Vallejo Model Color Scarlet.
The results of this process you can see below. They are finished, needing only to be varnished and based before they are tabletop ready.
Hello, and welcome to OFITG History. This is a website for articles and videos on military and political history. These articles will cover mostly topics in history in which I specialize (such as the American Civil War, the Trans-Mississippi theater in particular) and which hold my interests. This includes but is not limited to such topics such as Republican Rome and Carthage, the Thirty Years War, the English Civil Wars, World War II, and the Vietnam War. Outside of these historical periods, I will also periodically focus on historical memory and its modern-day impacts. I may also occasionally feature works by guest authors on topics of their choice. All articles of a historical nature will include references to primary and secondary sources. All citations will follow guidelines established in The Chicago Manual of Style: Seventeenth Edition.
I will also have articles and posts on media and popular culture related to history, such as computer/video and tabletop wargames, books, and films. This includes miniature painting, discussions of popular historical films, and book reviews. This how portrayals of history in such media relate to historical memory.
of respect for you, dear reader, I will refrain from including modern
political commentary, theological and religious discussions beyond
the direct historical impacts of belief and the actions of believers
and nonbelievers, and related modern controversies from my articles
I welcome comments and feedback, but ask that comments remain polite and civil. I reserve the right to remove or delete comments which promote hatred or bigotry in any form. Certain types of historical revisionism, such as Holocaust denial, will also not be tolerated.